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We caution the reader that these economic estimates are from industry and secondary reports; hence the quality of these data cannot be independently verified.
Further, we note that several estimates have wide confidence intervals.
One differentiation of SEM is by level of explicitness. Hald and Malamuth's(14) definition emphasizes the former and, since HIV prevention researchers are interested in the relationship between SEM and sexual behavior, examination of hardcore SEM allows for the exploration of the relationship between depicted and enacted sexual behavior.
SEM has also been subtyped as normophilic or paraphilic, while Brown(15) recommends further analyzing the components by genre, sexual fantasy, and cultural objects.
For HIV specifically, we define “bareback SEM” as SEM depicting any behavior documented to transmit HIV, including unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), ingestion of another man's semen in oral sex, depictions of ejaculation inside the anus and/or ejaculate in or on the anus, and UAI with multiple men.
For example, if one considers four activities -- watching porn online, watching live sex online, watching live sex where one can instruct the actor(s), and engaging in cyber sex with a partner – it is far from clear where pornography ends and sex begins.
For example, Tydén and Rogala,(5) in the Swedish study of men and pornography, noted, “All the [HIV prevention] efforts to modify sexual behaviour by increasing condom use and increasing risk awareness may be jeopardized by the global pornography industry through its efficient distribution channels, such as internet, cable television and videos, where amongst others, ‘unsafe sex’ is promoted.” (p. However, research on what relationship, if any, exists between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is sparse.
Hence, the aim of this paper is to review the available evidence and relevant studies, to identify gaps in existing knowledge, and to make recommendations for future research.
We propose that normophilic SEM, within a gay context, be defined as media depicting common sexual acts between men such as mutual masturbation, oral sex, analingus and anal sex (both with and without condoms).
Conversely, paraphilic SEM would be defined as depictions of sexual behaviors that are less common or considered by the community, including fetishism, sadomasochism, uroaglia and coprophilia (watersports and scat), and uncommon sexualized activities (e.g., bondage when undertaken as part of sex play or foreplay).(15)Finally, for the purpose of HIV prevention research, we propose to expand Brown's(15) typology to differentiate between behaviors with varying levels of HIV transmission risk.
No satisfactory scientific definition of pornography exists.(9) Webster's dictionary defines pornography as “the depiction of erotic behavior intended to cause sexual excitement.” However, this definition appears culturally-specific, ambiguous, and highly subjective.